I think this is conditioning using normal, healthy fear reflexes. It is not fear itself that is being conditioned; fear-reflexes are used to condition the limbic system so as to establish a particular emotional make-up (The limbic system supports a variety of functions including adrenaline flow, emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. Emotional life is largely housed in the limbic system, and it has a great deal to do with the formation of memories.).

Conditioning is going on all the time, you can see it everywhere. You can see it for instance in sports training, in learning math, learning to play a musical instrument etc.
The subject of conditioning is a large one and beyond the scope of this website. However, I feel some remarks are in order here.

#1 You can't "un-learn" something. Once learned the conditioned response stays with you for life. Technically, this is not true; under laboratory circumstances, it is possible to condition a reflex and then extinguish it, but in real life this is not what happens. In real life you learn more adequate responses to a given situation on top of older ones as you go along.

#2 In a stressful situation you are at risk of falling back on an older, less adequate, response to the situation. The higher the stress the more likely it is, this will happen (the stress need not be negative, it also can happen when you are very excited). A rather hilarious example of this phenomenon happened in a 1992 world series baseball game. Here the defense makes a double play and traps a third runner between second and third base. In this situation the defense has a fail-safe trick at its disposal to make it a triple play, something that has not happened in a world series game since 1920 . This runner is a dead duck; they only have to pull the trigger. But watch what happened.

What happened here? The "fail-safe" trick is to force the victim to run towards the appointed tagger at high speed (Gruber does this). The tagger has to wait until the runner is too close to him to escape both horns of the bull. He then has to signal to the chaser (Gruber) to throw the ball by raising his receiving hand (the one with the glove) and start running towards the victim STARTING WITH THE LEG THAT IS ON THE SAME SIDE AS THE RUNNER IS!!! thus presenting the victim with a problem that can't be solved. If the runner decides to keep his direction he will run into the tagger (who now has the ball), if he decides to go the other way he will have to stop and turn around. The tagger, who is gaining speed , will overtake him.

What happened? The appointed tagger started with the wrong leg. Videostill. America's finest, battle hardened, top professional, highly motivated, most ambitious, best trained, coached and pampered by top professionals, multi-millionaire athletes failed to pull off a simple trick and put everyone on the wrong leg. Look at the referee. He did not see this in twenty years. I imagine the high rollers who put their money on a triple play ran out of their houses shouting, like Archimedes, "I got it! I got it!" celebrating their good fortune.

What happened? Probably the excitement of writing history made the tagger fall back on an older response to the situation. The trick is a simple one, but must be performed very quickly. The victim will try to wriggle his way out and he too is a top athlete. Therefore, this trick has to be trained, conditioned in psychological jargon. Very likely the tagger has been conditioned to the special situation of the runner on his left hand side first.
Though he learned the correct response later, and trained it to perfection for many years, the old reflex is still there and was triggered when the stress was unusually high.

Very funny.
But now that you know this, you might think twice about teaching your kid how to drive a car or handle a rifle for example, before hiring a professional trainer. You better be sure to teach (condition) the correct behavior right from the start.

#3 When conditioning a response a surprisingly low number of trials is needed to establish the desired reflex. I see reports in the media about programs in public schools where non-Muslim children are taught about the Muslim faith. Apparently reciting Koran verses is part of this education. My children are not at school, but if they were, I would object against these practices and not allow my kids to attend these programs.